Citrus canker is a disease affecting Citrus species caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis. Infection causes lesions on the leaves, stems, and fruit of citrus trees, including lime, oranges, and grapefruit. While not harmful to humans, canker significantly affects the vitality of citrus trees, causing leaves and fruit to drop prematurely; a fruit infected with canker is safe to eat, but too unsightly to be sold.
The disease, which is believed to have originated in Southeast Asia, is extremely persistent when it becomes established in an area. Citrus groves have been destroyed in attempts to eradicate the disease. Brazil and the United States are currently suffering from canker outbreaks.
Citrus greening (huánglóngbìng) aka 'yellow dragon disease'; or HLB is a disease of Citrus caused by a vector-transmitted pathogen. The causative agents are motile bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter spp. The disease is vectored and transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri and the African citrus psyllid, Trioza erytreae, also known as the two-spotted citrus psyllid. It has also been shown to be graft-transmissible.
Three different types of HLB are currently known: The heat-tolerant Asian form, and the heat-sensitive African and American forms. The disease was first described in 1929 and first reported in China in 1943. The African variation was first reported in 1947 in South Africa where it is still widespread. Eventually, it affected the United States, reaching Florida in 2005. Within three years, it had spread to the majority of citrus farms. The rapid increase in this disease has threatened the citrus industry not only in Florida, but the entire US. As of 2009, 33 countries have reported HLB infection in their citrus crop.
Citrus canker and greening have decimated citrus groves for a number of years.
In October 2013, the bacterium, Xylella Fastidiosa, was found infecting olive trees in the region of Apulia in southern Italy. The disease caused rapid decline in olive grove yields and by April 2015 was affecting the whole Province of Lecce and other zones of Apulia even though it had not previously been confirmed in Europe. The subspecies involved in Italy is X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca which shows a marked preference for olive trees and warm conditions and is thought unlikely to spread to Norhern Europe. The cycle in olives has been called olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS); in: Italian: complesso del disseccamento rapido dell'olivo). The disease causes withering and desiccation of terminal shoots, distributed randomly at first but then expanding to the rest of the canopy resulting in the collapse and death of trees. In affected groves, all plants normally show symptoms. The most severely affected olives are the century-old trees of local cultivars Cellina di Nardò and Ogliarola salentina.
By 2015, the disease had infected up to a million olive trees in Apulia and Xylella fastidiosa had reached Corsica. By October 2015, it had reached Mainland France, near Nice, in Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, affecting the non-native myrtle-leaf milkwort (Polygala myrtifolia). This is the subspecies X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex which is considered to be a different genetic variant of the bacterium to that found in Italy. On 18 August 2016 in Corsica, 279 foci of the infection have been detected, concentrated mostly in the south and the west of the island. In August 2016, the bacterium was detected in Germany in an oleander plant. In January 2017 it was detected in Mallorca and Ibiza. In June 2017, it was detected in the Iberian peninsula, specifically in Guadalest, Alicante. In 2018 it was detected in Spain and Portugal and in Israel in 2019.
Olive trees in the Mediterranean have suffered greatly from Xylellaa Fastidiosa.
The greatest threats are to mild winter regions with one or more of the following crops: grapevines, olives citrus, almond, stone fruits (Prunus spp.), coffee, oleander, lucerne or where the tree species that can be potentially affected by leaf scorch diseases occur.
EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization) considers Xylella Fastidiosa as an A1 quarantine pest and it is also a quarantine pest for COSAVE. In the EPPO region, it is clear that the grapevine strain of Xylella Fastidiosa has the potential to kill large numbers of grapevines and to make areas unfit for growing Vitis vinifera. Its vectors in North America do not occur in the EPPO region, but vector capacity is so non-specific that one could certainly expect European Cicadellinae (e.g., Cicadella viridis) or Cercopidae to transmit the bacterium if introduced. After the recent introduction and spread of the vector Homalodisca vitripennis in California, USA, this leafhopper has become extremely abundant on citrus and other crops in southern California.
This illustrates that this exotic vector species can become abundant in Mediterranean climates, despite originating in a humid subtropical region (south-eastern USA). The main danger in the long term in Europe is that Xylella Fastidiosa could become established in natural vegetation which would then act as a reservoir for infection of vineyards or other susceptible crops or forest trees. It is less likely that Pierce’s disease would become a problem in the production of planting material, for it is easily detected, can be prophylactically eliminated by hot-water treatment, and is rapidly self-eliminating if introduced into fields. Nevertheless, infected planting material could introduce the disease to new areas modelled the distribution of Xylella Fastidiosa in California and projected the model to predict world distribution. Cold winter temperatures were seen as the limiting factor for Xylella Fastidiosa establishment and it isonly likely to establish as a serious problem in the warmer parts of the EPPO region, which have winter temperatures approaching those of the southern USA.
Species distribution models suggest that Xylella Fastidiosa in Italy has the potential to spread beyond the current boundaries of distribution and affect wide areas of Italy outside of Apulia. Mediterranean climates are particularly favorable for Xylella Fastidiosa establishment and Xylella Fastidiosa may establish within Portugal, Spain, Corsica, Albania, Montenegro, Greece and Turkey as well as all countries of northern Africa and the Middle East. The persistence of Xylella Fastidiosa in the cooler climate of Kosovo, former Yugoslavia, over several years suggests Pierce's disease could also become established in coastal parts of southern France, and northern Italy. Information on the incidence and severity of the disease in the former Yugoslavia was not available as of early 1998. The potential natural range and severity of Pierce’s disease in Europe may depend on the distribution and biology of potential vectors and is accordingly rather difficult to asse
Pierce's disease with grapevines is brought on by Xylella Fastidiosa.
Bananas are one of the top fruits of the world that is predominately grown in tropical and sub-tropical climates of the world. The largest exporters of bananas are in Central America and the Philippines. With the rainy climate, sunshine and humidity, these climates serve as an incubator for pathogens such as Panama Wilt, Bacterial Wilt, Sigatoka Fungus and Banana Bunchy Top Virus(BBTV). These 4 pathogens have been prevalent for up to 100 years and are resistant to conventional, toxic pesticides.
With a stubborn pathogen such as the four types mentioned previously, they have a protective coating that must be penetrated in order to achieve a successful kill. In addition, the vector such as Banana Aphids must be sterilized to prevent spreading the disease that they carry.
The Panama Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense), Bacterial Wilt (Erwinia tracheiphila, a gram-negative bacterium) and Sigatoka Fungus (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) make their way from the soil into the stalks of bananas with nothing getting in their way. BBTV (a single-stranded DNA virus) however, receives its infection from the Banana Aphid going from plant to plant.
Conventional treatments such as mild or medium pesticides are not enough to penetrate the protective layers of these violent pathogens. It takes an extreme pesticide to combat the protective layers and successfully exterminate them. OXYBOM™ is that extreme solution.
Bananas are a giant industry constantly battling four diseases around the world.
By increasing the oxidative energy in the root system and around the leaf & stem area, OXYBOM will fortify the plant’s natural resistances and healing properties by increasing the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)available. OXYBOM is a very low-cost method to increase the oxidative energy for healing plant life.
Here is the situation with Citrus Canker & Greening as well as Xylella fastidiosa - They are gram-negative gammaproteobacteria. This is a bacterium that sets up shop in the xylem of the plant, the vascular tissue that moves water and nutrients up from the roots. By using OXYBOM to irrigate the root system and spray the tree branches and leaves, we can increase the oxidative energy going to the plant. Gram-negative bacterium has 4 layers in its cell wall that protects it from external forces. This makes it harder to kill and easier to heal. You need to penetrate the four layers to attack the nucleus (brains).
With BBTV, OXYBOM oxidizes this virus within seconds. The ROS generated by OXYBOM will "burst" the pathogen, obliterating it from existence.
When using OXYBOM to irrigate the root system and spray the tree branches and leaves, we can increase the oxidative energy going to the plant. The toxicity of 1-O-2 is hence dependent on the number of molecules attacking a bacterium. Calculations have concluded that to achieve a 99% kill, 1.3 x 10-5 mol of singlet oxygen should reach a bacterium in 20 minutes. On average, gram-negative bacteriums require 5 x 10(to the 9th power) molecules 1-O-2 per cell.
When oxygen and its by-products overwhelm a bacterium, the following sequence of events takes place:
Another thing to note about how OXYBOM successfully treats severe bacterium has to do with the vector/transmitter. A good analogy would be an airplane filled with ammunition. If the ammunition is removed, the airplane becomes a harmless form of transportation. Our proprietary chemical destroys the bacteria inside of the vectors such as the Asian citrus psyllid, Glassy Winged Sharpshooter or Banana Aphid. This prevents the insect from spreading disease and it becomes a harmless fly, if not killed during treatment.
This gets into the root system to disinfect the bacteria. Flooding is also beneficial for soil remediation. Mix 3 oz. OXYBOM to 1,000 gallons of water for irrigation solution.
Exterior problems are treated when spraying to rid the vector and disease. Mix 3 oz. OXYBOM to one gallon of water for spraying solution.